Introduction: School-failure is not related to a single factor, but it may be affected by multiple factors such as the general health status of the individual, his/her family and psycho-social environment, lack of academic skills, and economic conditions. Many studies have reported that children with epilepsy experience disabilities in language, cognitive and social-emotional development resulting in academic failure, regardless of the type and clinical features of epilepsy. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the underlying reasons for the academic difficulties of children with epilepsy by defining their language and cognitive abilities. Four children who were seen for school failure at a Speech and Language Therapy Clinic were included in the study. Method: The children were administered WISC-IV (Wechsler Intelligence Sale four Children-4), TODİL (a Turkish language test for school-age children-Topbaş and Güven, 2017), TAST (a Turkish non-word repetition test, Topbaş, Kaçar-Kütükçü, and Kopkallı-Yavuz, 2014). Also, audiological measurements such as pure tone audiometry, auditory brainstem response, acoustic immittance, speech audiometry test and otoacoustic emissions tests were performed. In addition to these procedures, 2 mathematical problems and Turkish reading and comprehension questions were given to participants. Information regarding the child's relationship with siblings and peers and the level of success in school lessons were also obtained from parents. Results: As a result of WISC-IV, Case 1 had scores indicating ‘mental retardation’, Case 2 and 4 had scores indicating ‘borderline intelligence’ and Case 3 had ‘below average’ level of intelligence. As for, TODİL, verbal language scores were measured as between ‘average’ and ‘below average’. In the TAST, none of the participants were close to the maximum score of the test. Comparing to reading and reading comprehension, mathematical abilities were affected severely. Reading speed was found to be within the normal range in all participants; they did not skip sounds, syllables, words, sentences or lines during reading. Even though some of the participants had to double-check their answers, comprehension questions were answered correctly. In math, the ability to transform the verbal mathematical problems into arithmetic operations, dividing and determining the number of groups and arithmetic operations (addition with carrying, subtracting decimals, multiplying and dividing) were negatively affected. As for audiological evaluations, there was no hearing impairment. No behavioral and social-emotional problems were reported. Conclusion: School success is affected by many factors. Although none of the participants have social and emotional problems, language and cognitive deficits were detected. These results support the idea that Speech and Language Therapists should be a part of comprehensive assessment and intervention process.
school failure, epilepsy, language impairment, mental retardation, benign epilepsy
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2001). Roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists with respect to reading and writing in children and adolescents [Position Statement]. www.asha.org/policy adresinden alınmıştır (Erişim Tarihi: 01.10.2019).
Alkan, E. Ö. (2018). Aile parçalanmasının çocuğun okul başarısına etkisi: Trabzon örneği. Karadeniz Araştırmaları Enstitüsü Dergisi, 4(5), 167-225.
Archibald, L. M. (2017). SLP-educator classroom collaboration: A review to inform reason-based practice. Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, 2, 2396941516680369.
Archibald, L. M., Cardy, J. O., Joanisse, M. F., & Ansari, D. (2013). Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children. PloS One, 8(10), e77463.
Camfield, C., & Camfield, P. (2017, November). Cognitive disabilities and long-term outcomes in children with epilepsy: A tangled tail. In Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 24(4), 243-250.
Chaix, Y., Laguitton, V., Lauwers-Cances, V., Daquin, G., Cances, C., Démonet, J. F., & Villeneuve, N. (2006). Reading abilities and cognitive functions of children with epilepsy: Influence of epileptic syndrome. Brain and Development, 28(2), 122-130.
Ciltas, A., & Isik, A. (2013). The effect of instruction through mathematical modelling on modelling skills of prospective elementary mathematics teachers. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 13(2), 1187-1192.
Currie, N. K., Lew, A. R., Palmer, T. M., Basu, H., De Goede, C., Iyer, A., & Cain, K. (2018). Reading comprehension difficulties in children with rolandic epilepsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 60(3), 275-282.
Duarte, I., Santos, C. C., Rego, G., & Nunes, R. (2016). School failure in students who are normal-hearing or deaf: With or without cochlear implants. Springer Plus, 5(1), 237.
Dworkin, P. H. (1989). School failure. Pediatrics in Review, 10(10), 301-312.
Ebbels, S. H., Dockrell, J. E., & van der Lely, H. K. (2012). Non‐word repetition in adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI). International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 47(3), 257-273.
Eddy, C. M., Rickards, E. H., & Cavanna, A. E. (2011). The cognitive impact of antiepileptic drugs. Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders, 4, 385-407.
Ehren, B. J. (2002). Speech-language pathologists contributing significantly to the academic success of high school students: A vision for professional growth. Topics in Language Disorders, 22(2), 60-80.
Feiler, A., & Watson, D. (2011). Involving children with learning and communication difficulties: the perspectives of teachers, speech and language therapists and teaching assistants. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 113-120.
Gathercole, S. E. (1995). Is Nonword repetition a test of phonological memory or long-term knowledge? It all depends on the nonwords. Memory & Cognition, 23(1), 83-94.
Gelfand, S. A. (2016). Speech Audiometry., Essentials of Audiology (s. 215-247). New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.
Hall, J. W. (2007). New Handbook of Auditory Evoked Responses (s. 38-170). Pearson Publishing.
Jerger, J.F. (1970). Clinical experience with impedence audiometry. Archives of Otolaryngology, 92, 311-324.
Kamal, M., & Bener, A. (2009). Factors contributing to school failure among school children in very fast developing Arabian Society. Oman Medical Journal, 24(3), 212.
Kim, E. H., Yum, M. S., Kim, H. W., & Ko, T. S. (2014). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and attention impairment in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. Epilepsy & Behavior, 37, 54-58.
Kleemans, T., Segers, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2011). Cognitive and linguistic precursors to numeracy in kindergarten: Evidence from first and second language learners. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(5), 555-561.
Liden, G. (1969). The scope and application of current audiometric tests. Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 83, 507-520.
Money, D. (1997). A comparison of three approaches to delivering a speech and language therapy service to people with learning disabilities. European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 32(4), 449-466.
Öktem, F., Erden, G., Gençöz, T., Sezgin, N., Uluç. S. (2016). WISC-IV Türkçe Uygulama ve Puanlama El Kitabı (1. Baskı). İstanbul: Pearson Yayınları.
Perna, R., Loughan, A. R., Le, J., Hertza, J., & Cohen, M. J. (2015). Spectrum of mathematical weaknesses: related neuropsychological correlates. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 4(3), 157-165.
Probst, R., & Harris, F. P. (1997). Otoacoustic emissions. Advances in Otorhinolaryngology, 53, 182-204.
Roulet‐Perez, E., & Mayor, C. (2018). Childhood epilepsy with centro‐temporal spikes (rolandic epilepsy) and written language. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 60(3), 219-219.
Sarıer, Y. (2016). Türkiye’de öğrencilerin akademik başarısını etkileyen faktörler: Bir meta-analiz çalışması. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 31(3), 609-627.
Savaş, M., Tunçer, A. M., Çokar, A. Ö., Demirbilek, A. V., & Tüzün, E. (2020). Impact of epilepsy on language and discourse: Two self-limited focal epileptic syndromes of childhood. Epilepsy & Behavior, 102, 1-10.
Scheffer, I. E., Berkovic, S., Capovilla, G., Connolly, M. B., French, J., Guilhoto, L., ... & Nordli, D. R. (2017). ILAE classification of the epilepsies: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia, 58(4), 512-521.
Scholtes, F. B. J., Hendriks, M. P. H., & Renier, W. O. (2005). Cognitive deterioration and electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep. Epilepsy & Behavior, 6(2), 167-173.
Topbaş, S., Maviş, İ., Yavuz, H., Ege, P., Haznedar, B., & Erk-Emeksiz, Z. (2013). TODİL: Türkçe Okulçağı Dil Gelişim Testi (TOLD-P: 4-Turkish Version). TODİL Projesi: Anadili Türkçe Olan Tek-Dilli Ve İki Dilli Okul Öncesi Ve İlköğretim Çağı Çocuklarında (2: 0-9: 0) Özgül Dil Bozukluklarını Ölçme Ve Değerlendirme Çalışması, 71-116.
Topbaş S, Güven S. (2017). Türkçe Okul Çağı Dil Gelişimi Testi (TODİL) Kullanım Kılavuzu. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.
Topbaş S., Kaçar-Kütükçü, D., & Kopkalli-Yavuz, H. (2014). Performance of children on the Turkish nonword repetition test: Effect of word similarity, word length, and scoring. Clinical Llinguistics & Phonetics, 28(7-8), 602-616.
Van Rijckevorsel, K. (2006). Cognitive problems related to epilepsy syndromes, especially malignant epilepsies. Seizure, 15(4), 227-234.
Vannest, J., Tenney, J. R., Gelineau-Morel, R., Maloney, T., & Glauser, T. A. (2015). Cognitive and behavioral outcomes in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. Epilepsy & Behavior, 45, 85-91.
Vega, Y. H., Smith, A., Cockerill, H., Tang, S., Agirre-Arrizubieta, Z., Goyal, S., ... & Gomez, K. (2015). Risk factors for reading disability ın families with rolandic epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 53, 174-179.
Vinayan, K. P., Biji, V., & Thomas, S. V. (2005). Educational problems with underlying neuropsychological impairment are common in children with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Seizure, 14(3), 207-212.
https://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Degree-of-Hearing-Loss/ adresinden alınmıştır (Erişim Tarihi: 01.10.2019).